Wednesday, April 23, 2008

How to take a bootable CDROM image and allow a PXE client to boot from it

This took me awhile to figure this out. I had 30 clients that booted from a cdrom (they did not have an internal hard drive). They all ran the same cdrom image. When my company needed to expand, I thought it best to choose a thin client with no moving parts (this is a dusty dirty environment where the acidic dust wears bearings out!). The new thin clients have no hdd or cdrom, they must boot from the network. This cdrom image is proven over time and I wanted to continue to use it. Here is what I did:
Considerations: This is a linux/GNU environment, other OS are not considered.
1. Created a server to boot from (PXE server, DHCP server, NFS server)
2. Made a copy of the cdrom and mounted the copy, such as: # mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
3. Ensure /mnt/cdrom is readable by the world, such as: # chmod -R 754 /mnt/cdrom
TFTP/PXE setup
1. You will need to ensure that you have an initrd that will "do the right thing" when the linux kernel that boots from PXE. Here are the steps to manually recreate a initrd, this is not too hard:
a. Mount your initrd someplace, such as: # mount -o loop /boot/initrd /tmp/initrd
b. This image is read-only so you will need to copy it out and then edit it, such as: # tar cpvf initrd.tar /tmp/initrd && tar xvf initrd.tar /tmp/initrd_new
c. So now edit the 'linuxrc' or whatever your initrd uses as a 'init' script (the script that gets everything going).
d. when you edit this linuxrc, you will need to nfs mount the location that contains the files from the cdrom you mounted, such as: # nfsmount x.x.x.x:/mnt/cdrom
e. now create your new initrd image for use to pxe boot, such as: #mkfs.initrd initrd_new initrd
f. now put this initrd into where your pxe server expects it to be
Reboot your computer into the same image that is tested.

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Deleting all messages in an Exim4 queue

All that is needed in this line is to substitute a pattern to find the messages you want:

mailq | sed -n '/\*\*\*/p' | awk '{print $3}' | xargs exim -Mrm